New facilities can be exciting to set up as they are often outfitted with updated equipment, technology and the latest innovations. While you are planning the facility or starting to move in, employee safety must be considered in every area. In fact, safety equipment should be considered for each area and application, so employees will be safe from day one. The most up to date machine guarding, netting, mesh partitions or cages and safety gates all should be considered and made part of the plan for equipment in the new facility.
While there are many places that will need safety equipment, fall protection systems are needed for any elevated work platform; OSHA mandates fall protection systems at four feet, while ANSI standards suggest protection at three feet. Multiple elevated work platforms will likely be present in your facility, and even more if pick modules are used in material handing.
If you focus on fall protection, there are two key areas that must provide protection for employees: loading docks and dock-lifts used to move material, and any elevated ledges around pallet drop areas, including pick modules or pallet flow lanes.
Loading Docks and Dock Lifts
Let’s start outside the facility. Loading docks are often the busiest place in a facility, and they pose a number of safety hazards that put employees at risk for falls. The operation at a loading dock traditionally consists of a tractor trailer backing up to an elevated section of the building so material can be loaded/unloaded from the trailer. When the trailer is in place the elevated area remains safe, but once the trailer drives away there is an exposed ledge at the end of the elevated loading dock. Because this ledge is elevated it needs to be secured.
The best solution is a single-gate system that the employee on the loading dock is able to raise and lock open only when the tractor trailer is in place. Ideally, the gate automatically closes once the truck drives away from the area. This allows the operator to control when they want to open the gate, and makes sure the ledges remains secure when there is no truck in position without relying on someone to close the gate.
Dock-lifts used to move material in the loading dock area also provide risks for falls when employees ride them with material. Dock-lifts can be used by employees to move material at ground level, between the trucks and loading docks. Safety gates for these lifts should feature automatically closing gates, which ensures fall protection for any worker on the lift. As the lift elevates, the gates automatically close and lock into place. The gates stay closed and locked until the lift goes back to ground level, providing fall protection while the lift is raised and material is moved from the lift, truck and dock. They can be made in multiple configurations, depending on the operations of your dock.
Elevated Pallet Drop Ledges
Moving inside, most material handling or production facilities feature multiple elevated pallet drop areas - they can be used for the same or different applications. These areas may be on mezzanines, near doorways or on production platforms.
OSHA fall protection standards mandate that a properly constructed barrier be in place except when employees are actively accessing material. ANSI standards mandate a fall protection barrier is in place at all times during the operation, even while pallets are being loaded, staged or worked on. The best method for providing fall protection on elevated pallet drop ledges is a dual-gate system that keeps one gate closed at all times. These safety systems include various designs; each has a gate at the ledge that is connected to a second gate behind the pallet and configured so when one gate is open the opposite gate is closed. Fixed stanchions on the side create a controlled-access area. These systems can be manually operated or with remotely controlled power for remote access by the lift truck operator or automated vehicle.
Often elevated work platforms and pallet drop areas are located in pick modules - the multi-level systems used for inventory and order fulfillment. By design, these systems place pallets of material on elevated levels, and employees picking product to fill orders. One of the main safety requirements is creating a fall protection barrier while employees on these elevated levels are picking items off of the pallets or stacking empty pallets to be removed. Dual-gate systems work very well in pick modules, especially when offered in a rack-supported design, which can save space by using the rack uprights to support the safety gate.
Pick modules often feature pallet flow applications. While employees are not to walk on the lanes, it happens. Employees do walk into lanes, which poses risk for falls from the upper levels and injuries if pallet loads being pushed into the legs of employees. To secure the flow lanes, self-closing gates designed for flow systems and dual-gate safety systems can create a safe environment.
One additional point to remember about pallet drop safety is that new facilities are going to include the latest automation, and dual-gate safety systems can be equipped with power and sensors that make fall protection a part of the automated process.
If you have questions about safety equipment needs in your new facility, contact us - we can help.
Pallet flow lanes can greatly help the efficiency of a distribution center but they can be a nightmare for safety managers as the proper method for securing these areas can be confusing.
Pallet flow operations often look like this: the facility features a multi-level rack supported pick module where multiple deep pallets are pushed into the system. Flow rails are installed between the beams often at an angle to allow the pallets to flow into the system as they are loaded. There are typically one or two lanes in a bay, sometimes with an aisle between the lanes in a cluster picking application. Typically the picker on the platform will pick from the first pallet position or enter the lanes to pick from various pallets, putting the items on a takeaway conveyor to be packaged and shipped to individual locations.
For productivity, this is a great way to load many pallets into a system and for the pallets to be picked in a first loaded, first picked sequence, but it’s not necessarily good for safety.
No matter how the pallet flow lanes are configured, when they are in a multiple-level system there will always be a ledge that needs to be secured. Sometimes two ledges create fall hazards: the one at the end of the lane where the operator picks, and the one at the beginning of the lane where the lift truck loads. For this reason, the lanes are often decked over, which accomplishes two things. Decking fills in the ledge at the picking position and leaves only one ledge where the lift truck loads, and also prevents loose items like boxes or pieces of the pallet, from falling to the levels below where they could injure someone.
Decking is good, however, decking also creates safety concerns. With decking there is an egress into the lane. In cluster-picking applications, this egress is warranted so the pickers can pick from several pallets, but most times the operation doesn’t ask for employees to enter the lanes. In reality, the decking allows egress into the lane so now the edge of the lane must be guarded.
Safety managers know that they need to provide fall protection for employees picking within the module, and OSHA and ANSI require protection for employees working at any elevation of over four feet.
So now that you’ve decked over the flow lane and created one ledge that needs to be secured, the question is how do you secure this ledge? There are two ways the ledges of pallet flow lanes can be secured. We’ll call them “good” and “best.”
“Good” solutions are self-closing swing gates designed specifically for pallet flow lanes that the lift truck pushes open, and once the pallet flows into the lane, the gate automatically closes. The gates should be designed to accommodate the pushing of the lift truck and load, and consist of a solid panel to create a smooth transition for the pallet flowing onto the lanes. The swing gates should include tension adjustable hinges so the speed of the closing gate can correspond with the weight of the pallet loads, as well as rugged stops so the gates do not swing outward.
The two main injuries we hear about in pallet flow applications are people falling from the upper levels and pallet loads being pushed into the legs of employees when they are working in the lane. If designed correctly, this type of gate can create a safe environment – at times. When the lane is empty this type of gate will be closed, but when the lane is full the last pallet loaded will hold the gate open, creating an unsafe area. A pallet is not an acceptable fall protection barrier and it doesn’t protect employees from being inside the lane when pallets are being loaded.
The self-closing gate is an improvement over having no barrier, and while it will be in place to help prevent some fall related injuries, there also will be times when it impedes safety, which is why it is a good solution but not the best solution.
‘The “best” solution is to install a dual-gate safety system that maintains a safe environment for pickers at all times. This design uses a gate at the ledge and a second gate at the end of the lane where the picker is standing. The gates are interconnected and counterbalanced so when one gate is open, the opposite gate is closed. Operationally, the ledge is open when the lift truck loads load pallets into the lanes, which means the rear-side gate is closed, preventing employees from accessing the lane and keeping them a safe distance from the ledge. Pickers then can manually raise the rear gate, which closes the ledge gate, securing the ledge while they pick from the pallets, as well as preventing the lift truck from loading more pallets while they are in that area.
This type of dual-gate system can also be designed extra wide and extra deep to accommodate the design of the pallet flow system, and is available in a rack-supported design to attach to the existing pallet rack to maximize space in the bay and for a rugged connection that doesn’t need to get lagged down into the decking. Dual-gate systems are available for both the inbound and outbound lanes and will maintain a safe environment at all times, ensuring there is a barrier that is always in place and keeping the employees out of the lane when the lane is loaded. These safety systems meet updated OSHA codes and ANSI standards as well.
If you have questions about securing your pallet flow lanes, we’re happy to help.